Monday, December 23, 2013


1.       The American Constitution of 1784, the Swiss Constitution of 1874, the Irish Constitution of 1937, the Japanese Constitution of 1946, the West Germany Constitution of 1949, the Communist China’s Constitution of 1954, the French Constitution of 1958, the Bangladesh Constitution of 1973 etc also have a preamble like Indian Constitution.
2.       The words, “Socialist”, “Secular”, & “Integrity” were inserted by the 42nd Amendment of 1976.
3.       Our Constitution consists of 448 articles in XXII parts which are as follows(98 Amendments till now):
I.                    Union and Territories(Article 1 to 4).
II.                  Citizenship(Article 5 to 11)
III.                Fundamental Rights(Article 12 to 35)
IV.                Directive Principles of State Policy(Article 36 to 51)
IV(A).     Fundamental Duties(Article 51A)
V.                  The Union
VI.                The States
VII.              The States in the part B of the First Schedule
VIII.            The Union Territories
IX.                The Panchayats
IX (A)     The Municipalities
            IX(B)     The Co-operative Societies
X.                  The Schedule and Tribal Areas
XI.                The Relations between the Union and The states
XII.              Finance, Property, Contracts & suits
XIII.            Trade and Commerce within the Territory of India
XIV.            Services under the Union and the States
XIV(A)    Tribunals
XV.              Elections
XVI.            Special provisions related to certain classes
XVII.          Languages
XVIII.        Emergency Provisions
XIX.            Miscellaneous
XX.              Amendment of the Constitution
XXI.            Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions
XXII.          Short Title, date of Commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals

AND it is again characterized into 12 Schedules which are as follows:

·         First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4)- This lists includes the states and territories of India, lists any changes to their borders and the laws used to make that change.
·         Second Schedule (Articles 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221)- – This lists the salaries of officials holding public office, judges, and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
·         Third Schedule (Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219)—Forms of Oaths – This lists the oaths of offices for elected officials and judges.
·         Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2)) – This details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament) per State or Union Territory.
·         Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) – This provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (areas and tribes needing special protection due to disadvantageous conditions).
·         Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1))— Provisions for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
·         Seventh Schedule (Article 246)—The union (central government), state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities.
·         Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351)—The official languages.
·         Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) – Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
·         Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2))—"Anti-defection" provisions for Members of Parliament and Members of the State Legislatures.
·         Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-D)—Panchayat Raj (rural local government).
·         Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W)—Municipalities (urban local government).

Note : Don’t ever try to complete a long RACE in a short run by short cut.

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